Thursday, March 25, 2010

Major Muslim contributions

This is a partial list of some of the leading Muslims. Major Muslim contributions continued beyond the fifteenth century. Contributions of more than one hundred other major Muslim personalities can be found in several famous publications by Western historians. Biographies are available in the Islamic Civilization E-book.

Jabir Ibn Haiyan (Geber)

Chemistry (Father of Chemistry)

Died 803 C.E.


Zoology, Botany, Animal Husbandry.

740 - 828

Al-Khwarizmi (Algorizm)

Mathematics, Astronomy, Geography. (Algorithm, Algebra, calculus)

770 - 840

'Amr ibn Bahr Al-Jahiz

Zoology, Arabic Grammar, Rhetoric, Lexicography

776 - 868

Ibn Ishaq Al-Kindi (Alkindus)

Philosophy, Physics, Optics, Medicine, Mathematics, Metallurgy.

800 - 873

Thabit Ibn Qurrah (Thebit)

Astronomy, Mechanics, Geometry, Anatomy.

836 - 901

'Abbas Ibn Firnas

Mechanics of Flight, Planetarium, Artificial Crystals.

Died 888

Ali Ibn Rabban Al-Tabari

Medicine, Mathematics, Caligraphy, Literature.

838 - 870

Al-Battani (Albategnius)

Astronomy, mathematics, Trigonometry.

858 - 929

Al-Farghani (Al-Fraganus)

Astronomy, Civil Engineering.

C. 860

Al-Razi (Rhazes)

Medicine, Ophthalmology, Smallpox, Chemistry, Astronomy.

864 - 930

Al-Farabi (Al-Pharabius)

Sociology, Logic, Philosophy, Political Science, Music.

870 - 950

Abul Hasan Ali Al-Masu'di

Geography, History.

Died 957

Al-Sufi (Azophi)


903 - 986

Abu Al-Qasim Al-Zahravi (Albucasis)

Surgery, Medicine. (Father of Modern Surgery)

936 - 1013

Muhammad Al-Buzjani

Mathematics, Astronomy, Geometry, Trigonometry.

940 - 997

Ibn Al-Haitham (Alhazen)

Physics, Optics, Mathematics.

965 - 1040

Al-Mawardi (Alboacen)

Political Science, Sociology, Jurisprudence, Ethics.

972 - 1058

Abu Raihan Al-Biruni

Astronomy, Mathematics. (Determined Earth's Circumference)


Ibn Sina (Avicenna)

Medicine, Philosophy, Mathematics, Astronomy.

981 - 1037

Al-Zarqali (Arzachel)

Astronomy (Invented Astrolabe).

1028 - 1087

Omar Al-Khayyam

Mathematics, Poetry.

1044 - 1123

Al-Ghazali (Algazel)

Sociology, Theology, Philosophy.

1058 - 1111

Fall of Muslim Toledo (1085), Corsica and Malta (1090), Provence (1050), Sicily (1091) and Jerusalem (1099). Several Crusades. First wave of devastation of Muslim resources, lives, properties, institutions, and infrastructure over a period of one hundred years. Refer to Muslim History. Translators of Scientific Knowledge in the Middle Ages

Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Yahya (Ibn Bajjah)

Philosophy, Medicine, Mathematics, Astronomy, Poetry, Music.

1106 - 1138

Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar)

Surgery, Medicine.

1091 - 1161

Al-Idrisi (Dreses)

Geography (World Map, First Globe).

1099 - 1166

Ibn Tufayl, Abdubacer

Philosophy, Medicine, Poetry.

1110 - 1185

Ibn Rushd (Averroes)

Philosophy, Law, Medicine, Astronomy, Theology.

1128 - 1198

Al-Bitruji (Alpetragius)


Died 1204

Second wave of devastation of Muslim resources, lives, properties, institutions, and infrastructure over a period of one hundred and twelve years. Crusader invasions (1217-1291) and Mongol invasions (1219-1329). Crusaders active throughout the Mediterranean from Jerusalem and west to Muslim Spain. Fall of Muslim Cordoba (1236), Valencia (1238) and Seville (1248). Mongols devastation from the eastern most Muslim frontier, Central and Western Asia, India, Persia to Arab heartland. Fall of Baghdad (1258) and the end of Abbasid Caliphate. Two million Muslims massacred in Baghdad. Major scientific institutions, laboratories, and infrastructure destroyed in leading Muslim centers of civilization. Refer to "A Chronology of Muslim History Parts III, IV."

Ibn Al-Baitar

Pharmacy, Botany

Died 1248

Nasir Al-Din Al-Tusi

Astronomy, Non-Euclidean Geometry.

1201 - 1274

Jalal Al-Din Rumi


1207 - 1273

Ibn Al-Nafis Damishqui


1213 - 1288

Al-Fida (Abdulfeda)

Astronomy, Geography, Histrory.

1273 - 1331

Muhammad Ibn Abdullah (Ibn Battuta)

World Traveler. 75,000 mile voyage from Morocco to China and back.

1304 - 1369

Ibn Khaldun

Sociology, Philosophy of History, Political Science.

1332 - 1395

Ulugh Beg


1393 - 1449

Third wave of devastation of Muslim resources, lives, properties, institutions, and infrastructure. End of Muslim rule in Spain (1492). More than one million volumes of Muslim works on science, arts, philosophy and culture was burnt in the public square of Vivarrambla in Granada. Colonization began in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Refer to "A Chronology of Muslim History Parts IV, V (e.g., 1455, 1494, 1500, 1510, 1524, and 1538)"

Two hundred years before a comparable development elsewhere, Turkish scientist Hazarfen Ahmet Celebi took off from Galata tower and flew over the Bosphorus. Logari Hasan Celebi, another member of the Celebi family, sent the first manned rocket, using 150 okka (about 300 pounds) of gunpowder as the firing fuel.

Tipu, Sultan of Mysore [1783-1799] in the south of India, was the innovator of the world's first war rocket. Two of his rockets, captured by the British at Srirangapatana, are displayed in the Woolwich Museum Artillery in London। The rocket motor casing was made of steel with multiple nozzles. The rocket, 50mm in diameter and 250mm long, had a range performance of 900 meters to 1.5 km.

The dates in the table are converted from the Islamic calendar (A।H।) which begins with Hejira, the migration of Prophet Muhammad (s) from Makkah to Medinah. The calendar is based on lunar monthly cycles. 1 A.H. = 622 C.E.

thanks to cyberistan

Ziyaul Islam


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